What is Greenhouse Farming?
Green house protected agriculture is an agriculture method which involves an external protection to farm lands or plants through nets or special covers which can help reduce the bad effects. This is modifying the natural environment to suit to the growth of plants.
Benefits of Greenhouse protected agriculture
- Judicious use of land area can be possible and can raise the productivity. It gives the good production when compared to normal farming.
- The methods can reduce the use of water through drip irrigation and evaporation levels can be low.
- Humidity levels can attract the growth of pests. Humidity can be controlled in the enclosed crop growing and can stop pest not to touch the product.
- The green house can give protection to plants against rains or cold which can damage and influence the growth. This method allows crops to be grown throughout the year which are restricted due to climate change. This will provide food security.
- Technological help will enable monitor the inner conditions of green house whether it is under control according to the need of growing plants.
- This can be associated with Hydroponics, where plants can be grown without soil and can be grown in nutrient solution.
What is the need of Greenhouse Farming in India?
India has vast area, but it is not ready to provide everything to the population it consists of. There is less productivity per acre in India when compared to other countries. The temperatures are on the rise due to global warming and began to influence the productivity. This can be problematic if it is not addressed properly.The solution to global warming in agriculture can be said as protected agriculture. The judicious use of land area is need of the hour. With the protected agriculture, productivity can be increased in less area as loss can be controlled which happens through high radiation and humidity. The scorching of product by radiation can be reduced through providing greenhouses. Through this new method of agriculture, food productivity can be ensured which is very necessary in India.
To implement this new method in agriculture, there needs to be educated farmers. If they are not aware of how to use, it is futile as in the case of several inventions. The experiments in labs should be brought into the fields and farmers are to be taught. With the food security only India can achieve sustainable development. Without it, there will be growth which revert us to the olden days.
Green House – World Scenario
There are more than 50 countries now in the world where cultivation of crops is undertaken on a commercial scale under cover. United States of America has a total area of about 4000 ha under greenhouses mostly used for floriculture with a turnover of more than 2.8 billion US $ per annum and the area under greenhouses is expected to go up considerably, if the cost of transportation of vegetables from neighboring countries continues to rise. The area under greenhouses in Spain has been estimated to be around 25,000 ha and Italy 18,500 ha used mostly for growing vegetable crops like watermelon, capsicum, strawberries, beans, cucumbers and tomatoes. In Spain simple tunnel type greenhouses are generally used without any elaborate environmental control equipments mostly using UV stabilized polyethylene film as cladding material. In Canada the greenhouse industry caters both to the flower and off-season vegetable markets. The main vegetable crops grown in Canadian greenhouses are tomato, cucumbers and capsicum. Hydroponically grown greenhouse vegetables in Canada find greater preference with the consumers and could be priced as much as twice the regular greenhouse produce.
Growing of crops in green houses has proved to be the best way of utilizing the crops potential. Computerized control of irrigation, fertilization (Fertigation) and microclimate in green house enable precise monitoring of the most important production practices. Soil-less culture means any system of crop production not based on soil as the root medium. Soil-less culture helps in optimizing nutrient supply and overcomes the difficulty of managing problematic soils. Both these technologies have revolutionized the production of flowers such as carnation and carnation / gerbera and the production of vegetables such as Capsicum, colored capsicum, lettuce, tomato gherkin etc. and in high-tech agriculture water is regarded as a national asset and for conservation of water following steps is taken in Israel.
- The appearance of the automatic value, and upgrade of water meter.
- Utilization of plastic pipes and tubes for water supply and irrigation.
- Introduction of drip irrigation, the third step to increase water use efficiency was accomplished during the seventies with such main items as;
- Focused activity in the small holders’ family farms, which had been using water less efficiently than the bigger collective farms.
- Since farmers have hardly the money to invest in updating the irrigation system great financial assistance was rendered by the state.
- Introduction of irrigation computers.
- Fertigation; The Integration of fertilization with irrigation
- Further precision of water application was achieved by; Irrigation scheduling based on agro-meteorological indicators.
- Wide-scale use of computerized irrigation controller.
- Further, fine-tuning of water application is continuing in the fifth decade – the nineties.
- Countywide automatic weather stations have been established.
- Irrigation is based on vegetal indicators like plant water potential and growth rate of the fruits etc.
- The appearance of the minute irrigation with extremely low applications rate less than 1mm/h.